From Interactive Open Learner Modelling to Intelligent Mentoring: STyLE-OLM and Beyond

In IJAIED 26 (1)

Publication information


Adult self-regulated learning, Intelligent mentoring systems, Interactive open learner modelling


STyLE-OLM (Dimitrova 2003 International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 13, 35–78) presented a framework for interactive open learner modelling which entails the development of the means by which learners can inspect, discuss and alter the learner model that has been jointly constructed by themselves and the system. This paper outlines the STyLE-OLM framework and reflects on the key challenges it addressed: (a) the design of an appropriate communication medium; this was addressed by proposing a structured language using diagrammatic representations of conceptual graphs; (b) the management of the interaction with the learner; this was addressed by designing a framework for interactive open learner modelling dialogue utilising dialogue games; (c) the accommodation of different beliefs about the learner’s domain model; this was addressed with a mechanism for maintaining different views about the learner beliefs which adapted belief modal logic operators; and (d) the assessment of any resulting improvements in learner model accuracy and learner reflection; this was addressed in a user study with an instantiation of STyLE-OLM for diagnosing a learner’s knowledge of finance concept, as part of a larger project that developed an intelligent system to assist with learning domain terminology in a foreign language. Reviewing follow on work, we refer to projects by the authors’ students and colleagues leading to further extension and adoption of STyLE-OLM, as well as relevant approaches in open learner modelling which have cited the STyLE-OLM framework. The paper points at outstanding research challenges and outlines future a research direction to extend interactive open learner modelling towards mentor-like intelligent learning systems.