Student Models that Invite the Learner In: The SMILI:) Open Learner Modelling Framework
17 (2): "Special Issue (Part 1) "Open Learner Models: Research Questions" "
In recent years, the learner models of some adaptive learning environments have been opened to the
learners they represent. However, as yet there is no standard way of describing and analysing these 'open learner
models'. This is, in part, due to the variety of issues that can be important or relevant in any particular learner
model. The lack of a framework to discuss open learner models poses several difficulties: there is no systematic
way to analyse and describe the open learner models of any one system; there is no systematic way to compare
the features of open learner models in different systems; and the designers of each new adaptive learning system
must repeatedly tread the same path of studying the many diverse uses and approaches of open learner modelling
so that they might determine how to make use of open learner modelling in their system. We believe this is a
serious barrier to the effective use of open learner models. This paper presents such a framework, and gives
examples of its use to describe and compare adaptive educational systems.
Keywords. Open learner model, framework for open learner modelling