CARSS: A Framework for Learner-Centred Design with Children
Learner-centred design (LCD) is a nebulous concept. It can range from attempts to design with the
needs of the learner at the forefront, to involving the learner at various stages of the design process, sometimes
throughout the whole process. In addition, learner-centred design involving children implies additional issues
which do not present themselves when using an LCD approach with adults. In this paper, we argue that current
LCD frameworks do not consider the full range of issues necessary for successful design. We propose CARSS
(Context, Activities, Roles, Stakeholders, Skills), a learner-centred design framework specifically for child
learners, and describe two design case studies which demonstrate the framework in use.